Fossils seven substances


“What was remarkable,” Bada says, “is that the yield in these frozen experiments was better, for some compounds, than it was with room-temperature experiments.”

Help your students to see themselves as scientists of the future! Super Scientists is a set of resources on famous, influential or inspiring scientists from a variety of backgrounds. Resources include free presentations, worksheets and activity sheets for 4 to 12s.

Others take a systemic viewpoint that does not necessarily depend on molecular chemistry. One systemic definition of life is that living things are self-organizing and autopoietic (self-producing). Variations of this definition include Stuart Kauffman 's definition as an autonomous agent or a multi-agent system capable of reproducing itself or themselves, and of completing at least one thermodynamic work cycle . [31] This definition is extended by the apparition of novel functions over time. [32]

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These results are sorted by most relevant first (ranked search). You may also sort these by color rating or essay length . Title Length Color Rating   Future Human Evolution: The End of Diversity As We Know It? - First, I would like to point out that English is not my native language. But I hope that I’m able to express myself clear enough for you to grasp the meaning. My theory (or idea) is that right now, the human evolution is going in two separate directions: Direction 1: Evolution in the Rich Parts of the World In the rich parts of the world, humans have plenty of access to food, medical treatment, and education. And there is a lot of genetic exchange between populations that were isolated from each other in the past....   [tags: human evolution, nutrition, genetic diversity]
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( pages) Strong Essays [preview] Evolution of Human Bipedalism: - The Arboreal Ancestry Recent research has proved to support the hypothesis that one of the hallmarks of human evolution, bipedalism, arose from an arboreal ancestry. As implied, the tree-living ancestor was to have a benefited from a bipedal gait through aided mobility throughout the tree network (Thorpe et. al., 2007). In addition, the use of the upper body in the arboreal ancestor would be helpful in foraging (Stanford 2006). The importance of the arboreal ancestor hypotheses is their relation to the lower body development towards a bipedal posture and gait....   [tags: Arboreal Ancestry, Research, Human Evolution]
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( pages) Powerful Essays [preview] Human Evolution - For centuries, man has been curious about his origins and the origins of the life surrounding him. Countless explanations have been formulated using “evidence” that “proves” the story to be true. However, in 1859, Charles Darwin published a monumental theory in his book called The Origin of Species. In his book, Darwin outlined his theory of evolution by natural selection (Darwin, 1859). Although complex, this story is extremely useful in explaining the origins and history of life as we know it....   [tags: The Future of Human Evolution]
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( pages) Strong Essays [preview] The Evolution of Human Skin Color - According to Darwin and his theory on evolution, organisms are presented with nature’s challenge of environmental change. Those that possess the characteristics of adapting to such challenges are successful in leaving their genes behind and ensuring that their lineage will continue. It is natural selection, where nature can perform tiny to mass sporadic experiments on its organisms, and the results can be interesting from extinction to significant changes within a species. Human beings are no exception to biological evolution....   [tags: Human Evolution, 2015]
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( pages) Strong Essays [preview] Charles Darwin and Human Evolution in Intelligence - The great and famous Charles Darwin is still remembered today after almost 2 centuries had passed. He was one of the most significant scientists to change how we view this world. Life, as we know it, was changed by Charles Darwin. But I don’t believe that looking at the present will help in any way so I will take back to the past. It is a fact that throughout history people have always believed in some sort of god. Some religions were weak and have come and gone, where others have come and stayed....   [tags: Charles Darwin, evolution, intelligence,] 1190 words
( pages) Strong Essays [preview] Sexual Dimorphism and Human Evolution - Introduction The topic of gender differences must understandably be approached with caution in our modern world. Emotionally charged and fraught with ideas about political correctness, gender can be a difficult subject to address, particularly when discussed in correlation to behavior and social behavior. Throughout history, many people have strove to understand what makes men and women different. Until the modern era, this topic was generally left up to religious leaders and philosophers to discuss....   [tags: Anthropology Dimorphism Evolution Sexuality] 2397 words
( pages) Powerful Essays [preview] The Origin of Language in Human Evolution - Language is a complex system evolved from animal cognition system not from animal communication, suggesting that only humans with complex brain system were capable of developing (Ulbaek, 1998). Whereas other animal species communicate through vocalised sounds, songs, or gestures specially primates such as apes. Similarly gestures and hand gestures were the form of communication used by early hominids, but Homo habilis and Homo erectus started to use vocalisations and decreasing the frequent use of simple hand gestures for communication....   [tags: communication, linguistic system, anthropology]
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( pages) Strong Essays [preview] The Contribution of Running in Human Evolution - I. Modern world, that when one is hungry, they can just easily walk to the food store or drive to the nearest Wendy’s. Now imagine waking up everyday having to hunt for your food. II. The Tarahumara Indian tribe, in the Mexican Copper Canyon, is known to hunt in distances superseding a marathon distance in order to capture and provide food for their families. (Mcdougall,2009) III. Audience Interest: Before the invention of hunting bows about 200,000 years ago, early humans hunt with stone tipped spears, although they will not go against toe to toe against a carnivore, so they use a technique called persistent hunting....   [tags: hunting, running, foraging techniques]
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( pages) Strong Essays [preview] Human Evolution: Myth or Fact - The debate of human evolution being fact or fiction has been around for hundreds of years. Evidence of human ancestry has been found in many parts of the world and these fossils found have been proven to be human. The parts of the world include Eurasia and Africa. Although fossils are found in Eurasia, the human ancestor the Hominoidea has been traced back to the Miocene epochs, which were 23 to 5 million years ago. The Hominoidea is a super-family, which contains many species that are existent today including, gibbons, orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzee, and humans....   [tags: hominid species, fossils]
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( pages) Strong Essays [preview] Human Evolution Myth or Fact - The debate of human evolution being fact or fiction has been around for hundreds of years. Evidence of human ancestry has been found in many parts of the world and these fossils found have been proven to be human. The parts of the world include Eurasia and Africa. Although fossils are found in Eurasia, the human ancestor the Hominoidea has been traced back to the Miocene epochs, which were 23 to 5 million years ago. The Hominoidea is a super-family, which contains many species that are existent today including: gibbons, orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzee, and humans....   [tags: hominids, genetics]
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( pages) Strong Essays [preview] The Importance of Human Evolution - Introduction The main purpose of this essay is to critically discuss the importance of an understanding of human evolution and the history of psychology for the modern psychologist. The essay aims to critically discuss the study of human evolution which includes some of the species that evolved over the years before we now have our species, the history of psychology and the different prominent figures that are responsible for psychology being the field it is today. Finally, how an understanding of this can aid a modern psychologist....   [tags: modern psychology, darwin]
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( pages) Strong Essays [preview] The Course of Human Evolution - Human life histories are understood to consist of different levels of factors that contribute to the variation and evolution of human health, and this can be analyzed by categorizing the various lifetime events on a fast-slow continuum (Promislow & Harvey, 1990 as cited in Kaplan, Lancaster, & Robson, 2003). Mammals, for example, are located on the fast end of the continuum and are known to reproduce early, have a shorter period of pregnancy, grow into smaller body sizes, and produce a great amount of offspring that are vulnerable to death....   [tags: Anthropology]
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( pages) Powerful Essays [preview] Human Evolution: Two Philosophies - Most evolutionists believe that humans were not descended from monkeys. Instead, they both share a common ancestor that eventually split into different species and have been expanded and modified through theorized changes in form and function. However creationists believe that “God created mankind in his own image, in the image of God he created them; male and female he created them, and he made it good.” (Genesis 1:27-28) In this essay I will be explaining some of the different questions about human evolution and what creationists and evolutionists think about them....   [tags: Creationists, Bible, Evolutionists]
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(2 pages) Better Essays [preview] Evolution Applied to Human Health and Medicine - Evolution is defined as a gradual process in which organisms become better adapted to their environment through gradual changes that occur from generation to generation. Throughout the history of life, the human species has changed to become better suited to the environment. All of the changes have ultimately resulted from mutations, which occur at the gene level. Pathogens such as bacteria or viruses that live inside of our cells have had a major influence upon our evolution (Parks, Panelli & Weinstein, 2003)....   [tags: Science / Evolution]
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( pages) Term Papers [preview] Mid-Term on Human Evolution - ... 3) In what ways is the human primate a typical primate. In what ways is the human primate unique. The way that human primates are the same as a typical primate are the resemblance that they have. Both males and females have their physical differences between one another, both have similar hands and skin, and both can walk on their two legs. Primate has the same vision as we human do and see the world. Our sense of smell is equal to an anthropoid primate. The way human primate are unique from traditional primate is that humans have an extremely larger brain that has the ability to create cultures with complex symbolic communication system....   [tags: Darwin, primates, early humans] 539 words
( pages) Good Essays [preview] Evolution of the Human Diet - The members of the Homo genus possess a combination of unique features that distinguish them from other related species. At the time that each respective species was alive, they were able to walk upright on two legs, use their large brains for the benefit of their species, and could thrive in many geographically and climatically diverse areas of the world. One of the most mysterious quandaries in science is how the lineage of the Homo genus became so different from their primate relatives....   [tags: Human Adaptation, Homo Genus]
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( pages) Research Papers [preview] Evolution of the Human Brain - The purpose of this paper to examine the evolution of the human brain that distinguishes them from other species based on the traits that humans possess: such as language, emotional complexity and consciousness. The significance of traits are due to adaptations in humans to promote the survival of our ancestors. Professor Hamilton (2012) discusses that the evolution of the human brain starts with the idea of the Triune brain, proposed by MacLean, whereby the human brain is made up of three parts: Reptilian, Paleo-mammalian, and Neo-mammalian....   [tags: Anatomy, Human Brain]
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( pages) Better Essays [preview] Mate Attraction and Evolution - According to error management theory (EMT), when judgments are made under uncertainty, and the costs of errors are not symmetrical, humans have adapted to favor making less costly errors (Haselton, Buss, & DeKay, 1998). When judgments are made under conditions of uncertainty, there are two possible types of errors: false positives and false negatives. The costs of making these types of errors are often asymmetrical because decreasing the likelihood of making one type of error increases the likelihood of making the other type of error (Green & Swets, 1966)....   [tags: Human Evolution]
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( pages) Term Papers [preview] human evolution - The central purpose of this essay is to critically discuss the importance of understanding human evolution and the history of psychology for the modern psychologist. For the human evolution, the essay will be addressing on how we and other species descended from our ancestors and how the different environment has helped to us to become more adaptable. Regarding the history of psychology, the essay will be discussing on how psychology branched off from the philosophy approach to become its own science....   [tags: psychology, the brain, mind]
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( pages) Strong Essays [preview] What´s Human Evolution? - ... These mutations can either thrive and create a better organism or destroy its occupant. Discuss evidence for theory There is loads of evidence that supports the theory that explains a lot about how we are the way we are. Human fossils have shown that lots of parts of our body have adapted. The main ones being our skulls and spines. Our skulls have changed due to discovery of fire and cooked food which meant we no longer need large strong jaws so our jaws got smaller. Also the nutritional benefits we gained from the cooked food meant that our brain size grew leaving our skull larger at the top and smaller at the bottom....   [tags: scientific evidence, bipedalism] 631 words
( pages) Better Essays [preview] What Makes Us Human? - Humans are extremely complex and unique beings. We are animals however we often forget our origins and our place in the natural world and consider ourselves superior to nature. Humans are animals but what does it mean to be human. What are the defining characteristics that separate us from other animals. How are we different. Human origins begin with primates, however through evolution we developed unique characteristics such as larger brain sizes, the capacity for language, emotional complexity and habitual bipedalism which separated us from other animals and allowed us to further advance ourselves and survive in the natural world....   [tags: Human Evolution Research Paper]
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( pages) Powerful Essays [preview] Human Evolution and Adaptation - ... As humans have evolved from prehistoric ancestors to increase our chances of survival. Muzzle angles have been one trait that has continued to change as species have continued to evolve. Previously muzzle angles have changed as a result of environmental and technological pressures. The muzzle angles have decreased as a result of a shrinking dentation and an increasing brain size. Although past trends have shown that there has been an increase in cranial capacity, or brain size, over the past 8 million years, studies have shown that in fact brains are shrinking in modern day humans....   [tags: dentation, survival, brain size] 627 words
( pages) Strong Essays [preview] Human Evolution: Ideas and Opinions Related to Evolution - 1 Australopithecus afarensis who existed million years ago and a million year old skeleton of an Ardipithecus ramidus are the closest science has come to discovering the human lineage. Shattered Ancestry an article written by Katherine Harmon discusses the remains of two hominids found within Ethiopia. These skeletal remains have created a huge controversy within the topic of evolution questioning many assumptions that have been made referencing the human lineage. The skeleton of the Australopithecus afarensis was named Lucy and was discovered in 1974....   [tags: Ideology, Complexity, Hominids]
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( pages) Strong Essays [preview] The History of Human Evolution - The History of Human Evolution By definition, human evolution is the development, both biological and cultural, of humans. Human ideologies of how the evolution of man came to be is determined by cultural beliefs that have been adopted by societies going back as far as the Upper Paleolithic era, some 40,000 years ago. Through the study of paleoanthropology, we have come to determine that a human is any member belonging to the species of Homo Sapiens. Paleoanthropologists, while studying the evolution of humans, identify and explain evolutionary changes that occur throughout time that aid in the development of the human species....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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( pages) Powerful Essays [preview] The Future Of Human Evolution - The Future of Human Evolution Evolution, the science of how populations of living organisms change over time in response to their environment, is the central unifying theme in biology today. Evolution was first explored in its semi-modern form in Charles Darwin 's 1859 book, Origin of Species by means of Natural Selection. In this book, Darwin laid out a strong argument for evolution. He postulated that all species have a common ancestor from which they are descended. As populations of species moved into new habitats and new parts of the world, they faced different environmental conditions....   [tags: essays research papers] 1788 words
( pages) Powerful Essays [preview] Technology and Human Evolution in the Film, 2001: A Space Odyssey - In the science fiction film, 2001: A Space Odyssey. The director, Stanley Kubrick, portray his masterpiece in an ambiguous understanding where he examines topics such as extraterrestrial life, the dealings with technology and the human evolution. Throughout the movie, Kubrick depicts the facade, monolith as an instrument in awakening intelligence. Moreover, the protagonists go through a drastic change of struggle to explore on the idea of technology and extraterrestrial life. In the opening scene, a mysterious black monolith is bestowed upon the prehistoric apes....   [tags: 2001: A Space Odyssey, films] 461 words
( pages) Good Essays [preview] Human Evolution: How Humans Have Evolved - Human species or in scientific terms know as, Homo Sapiens has evolved drastically in the last couple of billion years. Human evolution all started from our great ancestors, the chimpanzees. Human evolution started all in the continent of Africa. Due to global changes, evolution changed over time. Thus leading to the evolution of mankind. But man didn't just evolve from chimpanzees. There were a lot of scientific processes and different events that led up to final evolution of mankind. But what does it mean humans evolved from chimpanzees....   [tags: chimpanzees, humans, scientists]
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( pages) Better Essays [preview] The Process of Human Evolution Through Natural Selection - The process of human evolution through natural selection is an idea and a reality that is commonly misunderstood by a part of society. The process of natural selection is a continuous ongoing process that affects all living beings no matter what genus, species or even life form, all forms of life that are capable of reproduction are affected. In order for natural selection to take place there has to be a reproduction process that takes place within that species and pass on its genetic material to future generations....   [tags: reproduction, survive, species] 893 words
( pages) Better Essays [preview] Transcending Evolution: The Human Consciousness, or The Soul - The Human Consciousness, or The Soul In 1838 Charles Darwin wrote in his journal "Man in his arrogance thinks himself a great work worthy the interposition of a deity. More humble and I think truer to consider him created from animals". (Rachels, 1990) Daniel C. Dennett refers to Darwin's theory of evolution as a universal acid, a theory so powerful it seeps through every traditional concept and leaves behind a revolutionized world-view, resulting not only in a fundamental shift in the way in which we perceive ourselves as human beings, but more importantly, in the death of God....   [tags: Anthropology Philosophy Evolution Essays]
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(4 pages) Powerful Essays [preview] The Evolution of Human Parental Investment - Parental investment is any contribution that a parent gives to an offspring to increase the offspring’s chances of survival and reproduction at the expense of the parent’s ability to contribute to other aspects of its fitness (Barrett et al., 2002). Investment can be time, energy, food, protection, shelter, or other forms of care that benefit an offspring (Barrett et al., 2002). Costs to the parent are incurred on its inclusive fitness through lessening its ability to reproduce or invest in other existing offspring (Barrett et al., 2002)....   [tags: Psychology]
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( pages) Powerful Essays [preview] Human Evolution - Human Evolution      When people take a look at African history in general many topics and ideas come to mind. How the people of Africa lived, how they developed civilizations and cultures, and how their oral traditions came about are just a few examples. When I am trying to learn about different groups of people and different areas of the world I most likely start at the very beginning of their existence. Africa being the origin of man and the home for the majority of developments of early humans suggests that human evolution is an extremely import topic in African history today....   [tags: African History] 1010 words
( pages) Strong Essays [preview] Human Evolution - Human Evolution Human evolution is the biological and cultural development of humans. A human is any member of the species Homo sapiens, meaning "wise man." Since at least the Upper Paleolithic era, some 40,000 years ago, every human society has devised a creation myth to explain how humans came to be. Creation myths are based on cultural beliefs that have been adopted as a legitimate explanation by a society as to where we came from. The science of paleoanthropology, which also tries to create a narrative about how humans came to be, is deeply technical....   [tags: Biology Papers] 2996 words
( pages) Powerful Essays [preview] Evolution of the Human Being - There is evidence of a pelvic bone as a vestige in modern Cetaceans, which reveal their mammalian ancestry (Fig 5). Modern whales are no doubt still part of the mammalian clade as shown by common traits, such as mammalian glands, being endothermic, relying on lungs for respiration. But they are also transitional forms like any other creature. Modern whales also possess a variety of unique traits, such as no hind limbs, minimal amount of hair, and a blowhole on top of their heads, concur Thewissen & Williams (2002)....   [tags: mammalian, australopithecus, ancestry] 685 words
(2 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Human Evolution - Human Evolution Human Evolution, the biological and cultural development of the species Homo sapiens, or human beings. A large number of fossil bones and teeth have been found at various places throughout Africa, Europe, and Asia. Tools of stone, bone, and wood, as well as fire hearths, campsites, and burials, also have been discovered and excavated. As a result of these discoveries, a picture of human evolution during the past 4 to 5 million years has emerged. Human Physical Traits Humans are classified in the mammalian order Primates; within this order, humans, along with our extinct close ancestors, and our nearest living relatives, the African apes, are sometimes placed together in the...   [tags: Biology] 2715 words
( pages) Powerful Essays [preview] Evolution of Human Skin Pigment - Evolution of Human Skin Pigment Have you ever wondered how and why people are different colors. This paper discusses the evolutionary theories behind diversity in human skin pigment. Though previous theories hypothesized that darker skin evolved in order to protect people from sunburn and skin cancer, the prominent theory today relates to folate protection and vitamin D production. The prominent theory today about how and why skin pigment in humans developed with the color diversity that exists today, is that ancestral populations of humans inhabited areas with different UV radiation concentration....   [tags: radiation, vitamin d, environment] 898 words
( pages) Better Essays [preview] Human Evolution - Human Evolution Ardipithecus ramidus This species was announced in September 1994. It is thought to be the oldest known hominid species. It was dated at million years old. The majority of the fossils found were skull fragments. Other evidence suggests that this species was bipedal. The individuals were about four feet tall. Some fossils found indicate that ramidus may have been a forest dweller. The teeth resemble something between earlier apes and A. afarensis. The fossils were discovered by a team led by Tim White in Aramis Ethiopia....   [tags: essays research papers] 878 words
( pages) Good Essays [preview] The Role of Gene Mutation in Human Evolution - The Role of Gene Mutation in Human Evolution Have you ever looked at a gorilla or a monkey and considered it to be your ancestor. Probably not, but, if you have had that thought then it was probably just because that is what has been taught in our school systems for decades, and probably will be for a long time to come unless proven otherwise. Sure, humans and primates have similar features: facial expressions and structures; fingers; toes; breasts; hair; etc., but there has been no evidence that proves that we are, undoubtedly, a product of natural selection evolving from ape-like species....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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( pages) Strong Essays [preview] Computer Evolution Evidenced in the essays "Toward An Intelligence Beyond Man’s" by Robert Jastrow and "The AI Revolution Is On" by Steven Levy - ... He said the history had proved it takes a million year for human evolution. It took less time , compare to a billion years of evolution from worm to human. By the incredibly fast rate of technology improvement, Jastrow thought computer will evolve in a much shorter period of time. In the essay "The AI Revolution Is On" by Steven Levy, the author stated how new vision of computer intelligence are differ from the past years’, and how useful they are in today’s daily life. Levy used as an example of AI’s application in real world....   [tags: evolution, brain, human]
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( pages) Better Essays [preview] The Evolution of the Human Mind on Controversial Substances - The Evolution of the Human Mind on Controversial Substances Alcohol has become an acceptable part of society despite its illegality in the nineteen-twenties during the Prohibition. During the Prohibition the distribution, production and transaction of liquor became illegal until the law was lifted in the nineteen-thirties (Thornton). A substance that is very closely related to alcohol is Marijuana. Marijuana has as much of a negative reputation as alcohol because of the way people perceive it. However, researchers have found that marijuana can actually favor the health of consumers as opposed to disadvantaging it like alcohol (Rosenthal and Kubby)....   [tags: drugs and alcohol]
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(6 pages) Term Papers [preview] Tracing Chemical Evolution of the Human Body - ... By viewing the amount of similarities between the four organisms a scientist should see a remarkably high amount of similarities, due to all four having brain receptors. The homo sapien form of ARRB2 will be closest to the form found in Mus Musculus, the only other mammal. Methods and Procedures: The methods used for aligning and studying proteins starts with finding a usable protein, the method suggested by Mr. McClure is to use the Human Genome app on the I-Pad. The method that was preformed used was different, it starts with conducting a Google search with arrestin in the search box which lead to PhosphoSitePlus, was a website that had information about arrestin....   [tags: organisms, protein, genomes]
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( pages) Better Essays [preview] Human Evolution In Africa - Evolution In Africa Humans, as we consider ourselves, evolved in Africa. Not entirely, but from early primates to our present state. Many people dispute this fact, despite astounding evidence supporting the theory, for various reasons. Showing all the genetic, paleological, and geological proof, I find it very hard indeed to contradict the evidence. True, humans didn’t evolve entirely in Africa. As a matter of fact the first known ancestors of humans where found in North America, in the Utah Valley....   [tags: essays research papers] 836 words
( pages) Strong Essays [preview] The Aquatic Ape Theory - ... (Westrup, 2002) These multiple similarities of humans with aquatic organism and the environmental situation of the time, greatly suggest and helps proves that AAT best fits the explanations of the man/ape primate evolutionary split. The Aquatic Ape Theory explains the start of human evolution on the bases of basic evolutionary terms established by Charles Darwin. As explained earlier, the theory states that humans traveled from the wooded area toward water. In doing this, humans adapted to the new aquatic environment, dealing with survival of the fittest and geographic isolation which caused speciation....   [tags: human evolution, savannah theory] 1338 words
( pages) Term Papers [preview] Human and Inventions: The Computer Evolution - ... it is said that the human mind will never be replaced by the computer because we are the ones that created them. we only know the computer wins is when it outsmarts us but till now, we are winning. Computers can calculate and evaluate problems that humans can barely think of, yet even come close to. Maybe mankind could calculate the problems that a computer can, they will always be solved way faster by the computer. Humans want the computers to do the work for them, thinking that sitting and watching everything being done in front of them is the key to success....   [tags: thinking, robots, calculating] 700 words
(2 pages) Better Essays [preview] We Must be More Cynical of Human Evolution Theories - We Must be More Cynical of Human Evolution Theories The history of human existence is a highly speculated and heated subject of debate. Many seek for origins of mankind through religious and cultural contexts. Although no definitive answer has been established, society often tends to look towards science for explanation of this mystery. Surprisingly, much of what is presented in regards to human evolution is taken as fact. There is an underlying de-emphasis on particulars such as hypothesis and theory....   [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Argument Essays]
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( pages) Strong Essays [preview] Discovering the Things that Make Us Human: Evolution of the Brain - Discovering the Things that Make Us Human: Evolution of the Brain There is a powerful sentiment among many people that human beings are the most intelligent and complex animals on earth. Our ability to use language is matched by no other species. It makes sense to assume that whichever characteristics of the human brain arent possessed by other animals, specifically primates, our closest evolutionary relatives, are the ones responsible for the acquisition, production, and comprehension of language....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]
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( pages) Strong Essays [preview] Evolution of Human Characteristics - Human characteristics have evolved all throughout history and have been manipulated on a global scale through the use of science and technology. Genetic modification is one such process in which contemporary biotechnology techniques are employed to develop specific human characteristics. Despite this, there are a countless number of negative issues related with genetic modification including discrimination, ethical issues and corruption. Hence, genetic modification should not be used to enhance human characteristics....   [tags: genetic modification, ethics, discrimination] 794 words
( pages) Better Essays [preview] The Evolution and Gentic Basis of Human Pigmentation - SUMMARY. Studies in the field of ancient DNA began thirty years ago. Key discoveries proved that ancient DNA is an important tool in the search for difficult answers pertaining to our past. Studies on pigmentation genetics showed that adaptation for different UV radiations was the major factor contributing to the formation of the current pigmentation pattern in Europe, but there is evidence which highlights the additional effect of sexual selection. From the various genes described to play a role in the determination of human skin, hair and eye color, HERC2, SLC24A4 and SLC45A2 seem to be most strongly associated with this phenotypic characteristics....   [tags: DNA, pigmentation genetics, melanin]
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( pages) Powerful Essays [preview] The Evolution of the Human Brain - The Evolution of the Human Brain Although my previous two papers concerned the interplay between neurobiology and genetics, I have not quite worked the issue out to my satisfaction nor to the depth which I think the topic warrants. Therefore, I will again tackle this complex set of biological questions pertaining to the ways in which our genes shape our brains. My first paper dealt with the nature-nurture debate and its relation to the brain-behavior problem raised in class. Then, in the second paper, I moved on to a narrower issue in neurogenetics; I wrote about Fragile X Syndrome and the ways in which a specific genetic mutation can drastically change behavioral output....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]
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( pages) Strong Essays [preview] Proof that Humans Interbred with Neanderthals - Over the last few hundred years, more and more has been added to the world’s fossil collection, fossils from all over the world. New theories have been created and old theories have almost been proven about the evolution of man. For example, we have proof that different species of man existed with certain types of DNA sequences and instincts, some we may not have anymore, or some that other species did not have back then. Even though it is subjected to much debate, one of the most widely accepted theories however, is that Homo sapiens interbred with the slightly more primitive species of man, the Neanderthal....   [tags: human evolution, theories] 1346 words
( pages) Strong Essays [preview] The Evolution of Human Mating - The Evolution of Human Mating It may seem obvious to some why people mate, however there are many facets to human mating. Psychology has shown that reasons for mating have gone beyond the scope of love and physical attractiveness. People may search for mates who resemble archetypical images of the opposite-sex parent, mates with characteristics that are either complementary or similar to one's own qualities, or mates with whom to make an exchange of valuable resources (Buss 238). Although these theories play a key role in understanding patterns in human mating preferences, evolutionary psychology and sexual selection theory provide more concrete frameworks for explaining human mating....   [tags: Papers] 924 words
( pages) Better Essays [preview] Savanna Theory Versus Aquatic Ape Theory of Human Evolution - Savanna Theory Versus Aquatic Ape Theory of Human Evolution The evolution of man is constantly in question. While we are reasonably sure that modern humans and primates are both related to the same common ancestor, there is constant debate over what initially caused the two species to split into early hominids and apes. According to some, our longest and most popular theory on the division of man and ape is profoundly wrong. However, those same individuals usually offer an equally controversial theory as a substitute, one that is almost impossible to scientifically test or prove....   [tags: Anthropology Essays Paleontology Papers]
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( pages) Strong Essays [preview] Ancient History: Neanderthals to Homosapiens - NEANDERTHALS TO HOMOSAPIENS Neanderthal the most recent archaic human, who was introduced to this world between 300,00 and 100,000 years ago then after many years were replaced by humans between 35,000 and 24,000 years ago. Neanderthals inhabited Eurasia from the Atlantic regions of Europe eastward to Central Asia and from as far north as present-day Belgium southward to the Mediterranean and southwest Asia.” (). Human populations that were very similar to Neanderthals lived in eastern Asia and Africa....   [tags: arcaic human, evolution, homo sapiens] 1963 words
( pages) Term Papers [preview] The Evolution and Gentic Basis of Human Pigmentation - Melanocytes and melanin Melanocytes are dendritic cells derived from the neural crest that are able to produce melanin. Mammalian melanocytes are categorized in two groups: cutaneous melanocytes, which are involved in hair and skin pigmentation, and extracutaneous melanocytes, which represent the melanogenic cells of the eye, inner ear, adipose tissue, brain, heart and bone (Kawakami and Fisher, 2011). The life cycle of melanocytes is split in several steps: lineage specification from neural crest cells, migration and proliferation, differentiation into melanocytes, maturation of melanocytes, transport of mature melanosomes to keratinocytes in the case of cutaneous melanocytes and cell death...   [tags: DNA damage, melanosomes, cutaneous]
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( pages) Powerful Essays [preview] Homo Sapiens and The Ecological Hypothesis - ... Anthropologists completed studies using different species of primates in order to prove that brains in humans have indeed been evolving over time. They compared brain to body weight ratio by using a measurement of Comparative Brain Size (CBS). This ratio is independent of body size because it is the estimated sum of the size of the brain after the removal of body size percentages (Clutton-Brock & Harvey, 1980). In these studies they took into consideration variables such as the primates body weight, body length and predicted brain size....   [tags: human brain, evolution, theories] 929 words
( pages) Better Essays [preview] Not So Distant Relatives: Evolution of Human Vocal Production - Humans and nonhumans are closely related to one another through physical form, but what exactly differentiates them from one another. Several people argue that there is not much difference between humans and nonhuman primates, but the most obvious difference is the way they communicate. Compared to humans, nonhumans’ ways of communicating is very simple. While both have their ways of communicating with their members, their vocal communication systems are also similar and different in terms of how they produce their vocal sounds and how they are structured, how complex they are able to produce their sounds and what they mean, how it relates to their societies, and what they intentionally use...   [tags: sarcasm, vocalization, nonhumas]
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( pages) Strong Essays [preview] Science vs Religion - “Science is not only compatible with spirituality; it is a profound source of spirituality. When we recognize our place in an immensity of light‐years and in the passage of ages, when we grasp the intricacy, beauty, and subtlety of life, then that soaring feeling, that sense of elation and humility combined, is surely spiritual. The notion that science and spirituality are somehow mutually exclusive does a disservice to both.” -- Carl Sagan Students bring with them many assumptions about science, about religion, and about their relationship....   [tags: Human Evolution vs Relgion] 1045 words
(3 pages) Strong Essays [preview] What´s Bipedalism? - The birth of a baby is a miracle to the world; a baby crawling by itself is a huge achievement; a baby taking its very first steps is a historical moment for human evolution. A human is able to endure many changes, socially and environmentally, tailoring its skills and abilities along the way. The most remarkable adaptation for humans is the ability to walk upright on two feet, rather than crawling on all fours. When a baby is able to master the mechanics of bipedalism, it is a significant moment in that child’s life....   [tags: having free hands, human evolution] 726 words
( pages) Better Essays [preview] Why Is Communication Important to Humans? - Communication is defined as “the act or process of using words, sounds, signs or behaviors to express or exchange information or to express your ideas, thoughts, and feelings to someone else.” From that description, communication can be characterized as anything that can be used to get a message or a piece of knowledge from one individual to another. Communication helps humans to function orderly and productively. Without communication, the evolution of religion, government, art, clothing and much more would not have been possible....   [tags: evolution, human society, information, message]
:: 17 Works Cited 2155 words
( pages) Term Papers [preview] How We Went from Neanderthals, to the Song Dynasty, to the Tang Dynasty - ... Cities began to emerge as well as a more difficult way of life. According to Robert Carneiro, Civilizations emerged where agricultural land was limited; growing population densities and competitive societies drove the change (Strayer, Page 69). Civilization developed independently in seven major locations around the world including Mesopotamia, Egypt, China, the Indus Valley, Central Asia, Mesoamerica, and the Andes (Learning curve). Learning all of this was really amazing. It is fascinating to see how far Homo sapiens have come....   [tags: evolution of human civilization]
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( pages) Term Papers [preview] Humans in Relation to their Environment - Introduction Throughout history, humans have used what was present in the environment to aid their survival. The discovery and use of metals have been a gradual but extremely influential one. Evolving with early humans from personal adornment to the development of more efficient tools and lastly to full integration in every aspect of our modern life. This paper will look at how humans related to their environment before the discovery of metals. It will further go on to describe what metals are and how we incorporate them into our lives, and how extraction and use affect the environment around them....   [tags: metals, Human Niche, adornment, evolution]
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( pages) Strong Essays [preview] The Discovery of Antibiotics - ... Antibiotics solely target the bacteria cells, leaving the human body cells unharmed. Antibiotics have the ability to distinguish between bacterial cells and human cells by the differences in the cell structures. For example, bacteria cells have a cell wall, whereas human cells don’t. There are many classes of antibiotics, each class having distinctive functions. For example, penicillin works by interfering with the formation of the cell wall in bacteria. Acteriostatic antibiotics stops bacteria from multiplying, the weakened bacteria is then destroyed by the human immune system....   [tags: human body, bacteria, resistance, evolution] 2098 words
(6 pages) Better Essays [preview] The Role of Immaturity in Human Development - The prolonged juvenile period provides humans with the physical, social, and cognitive capabilities that are unmatched to any other species. The slow maturation process allows the human species to live longer and live smarter than any other mammal of comparable body size, and is the mechanism responsible for producing modern day humans. Immaturity has resulted in many benefits to the human species and can be directly linked as a product of evolution. The extended period of physical immaturity serves helpful purposes for the human species....   [tags: the product of evolution] 559 words
( pages) Good Essays [preview] Factors in the Evolution to Bipedalism - The evolution of the human species has significantly changed during the course of evolution to what is now the modern day Homo sapiens. Some of the changes that have occurred through the evolution are bipedalism, changes in body features such as brow ridges, and an increase in brain capacity. Bipedalism is a form of locomotion that is on two feet and is the one factor that separates humans from other forms of hominoids. The first bipeds are believed to have lived in Africa between 5 and 8 million years ago....   [tags: the human ape, ]
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( pages) Better Essays [preview] Creation of the Human Eye - Some would have us believe that the human eye – indeed, every organ in our body – came about through random chance; that somehow thousands of accidents of nature aligned in order to create the well-ordered organism that humankind clearly is. But nowhere can we find more evidence for the creation of man by a benevolent God than in the human eye. The human eye is a marvel of biology, and its immense complexity, beauty and perfection defy explanation even by the most devoted supporters of evolutionary theory, which can leave us with only the fact of God’s existence and insight: “So God created mankind in his own image, in the image of God he created them; male and female he created them”...   [tags: evolution, God]
:: 5 Works Cited 1281 words
( pages) Strong Essays [preview] Genetics and Human Sexuality - Human sexuality plays a major role in everyone's life. Regardless, whether we are young or old, man or woman, American or Japanese, it is an integral part of what we do and who we are as a human species. Next to sleeping and eating, it seems that it is one of the most important drives we have to deal with as humans. That is, it takes up so much of our time in thought and behavior that it sometimes seems that every facet of our life revolves around this to a certain extent. Human sexual behavior is different from the sexual behavior of other animals, in that, it seems to be governed by a variety and interplay of different factors....   [tags: evolution, hormones]
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( pages) Strong Essays [preview] Primates and Evolution - What makes a primate a primate. A primate is defined by its many incredible features. A primate is a mammal that has certain characteristics such as: flexible fingers and toes, opposable thumbs, flatter face than other mammals, eyes that face forward and spaced close together, large and complex cerebrum, and social animals. What makes a primate a primate is its characteristics. Some of the physical features primates are identified by is their teeth, snouts, eyes, ears, arms, legs, fingers, and toes....   [tags: Evolution] 687 words
(2 pages) Better Essays [preview] The Human Brain: Size and Development - ... That detail is one of the most significant characteristics that set humans apart from non-human primates. It has been studied by many scientists, and was concluded that the brains of modern humans are more than twenty times larger than Old World monkeys, and more than four times larger than those of great apes (Wang). The recent human population expansion has been documented using genetic markers, and it is likely that it would contribute to the many recent reports of mutations of the microcephalin gene in humans....   [tags: big brain, gene, evolution]
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( pages) Term Papers [preview] The Future Prediction of Human Language - Introduction Linguistics classifies language as a mechanism that permits free and creative expression of feelings into signs, and the opposite interpretation of such signs back into feelings (Christiansen & Kirby, 2005). According to Becker, 2005, “human language is seen as the last key evolution in the development of life on earth (2)”. His idea is that biological changes in humans are as a result of forces of evolution implying that human language originated from certain sources, and that its characteristics derived from human genes....   [tags: Linguistic, Language Evolution] 983 words
( pages) Better Essays [preview] Melanin - Melanin Melanin has played a significant role in human evolution. In this paper I will discuss the importance of melanin in its role in the human biological system and how it relates to the natural selection of suitable human life according to geography and environment. Human pigmentation is influenced by hemoglobins within blood vessels in the skin, carotene and melanins. Melanin, the basis of pigmentation, can be found in the forms of eumelanin and phaeomelanin. Eumelanin is the brown-black pigment located in the skin, hair, and eyes....   [tags: Human Evolution Skin Science Essays]
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( pages) Powerful Essays [preview] Darwin´s Theory of Evolution - Evolution theory led to great advances in the understanding of human behaviour and has had considerable impact on the study of religion. This essay will first show its importance in new-atheist discourses to reshape religion as handling ontological claims about the world, which can then be investigated and dismissed on the basis of scientific evidence. Then it will discuss how evolution theory has also been used to explain the emergence of the religious phenomenon and its diffusion, as an adaptive trait favouring cooperation or as a parasite detrimental to human kind....   [tags: religion, human behvaior, scientific hypothesis]
:: 6 Works Cited 1876 words
( pages) Term Papers [preview] What is Human Nature - When psychologists speak about human-nature, it is as if we are no longer apart of human-nature. Human-nature appears to be discussed in the sense of dehumanized, sub-human, animals that are no longer part of nature at all. Is it truly possible that we are so far gone from what we were evolved to be that we no longer have a human-nature (Morton & Postmes, 2011; Fisher, 2012). Current sociological writing generally avoids the term human-nature and gets by without it (Leahy, 2012). How do we answer this complex question when the two fields who study humans directly no longer use the term....   [tags: philosophy, evolution, psychology] 824 words
( pages) Better Essays [preview] Evolution on the Environment - Presently, the Earth that we are living in now has evolved though the past billons of years and is yet on the process of changing for the future. Each single step and decision we make plays a part on the upcoming organisms/generations living on this planet. Evolution plays a role on how the Earth never remains constant. Evolution is “a theory that the differences between modern plants and animals are because of changes that happened by a natural process over a very long time” (Merriam Webster)....   [tags: mutation, human, vertebrates] 520 words
( pages) Strong Essays [preview] Human Nature, Our Downfall - In a metaphor, the evolution of civilization is in many ways similar to the evolution of flight. A long story made brief – both required multiple attempts, before they were able to function sustainably. Just as the engineers in the big firms which produce the machines – Airplanes and Helicopters – used for flight, are constantly attempting to improve upon their products, we as members of our respective societies are always looking for better, faster and cheaper ways to sustain ourselves. Civilization requires three main ‘materials’ if you will; Politics – the role of the state and political organization, the spokesperson promoting the idea that might is right, Economics – the production, exc...   [tags: Evolution of Civilization, Evolution of Flight]
:: 5 Works Cited 1297 words
( pages) Strong Essays [preview] The History of Hominid Evolution - What evidence shows the changing from the early hominids to the modern humans. Throughout the human evolution body parts like legs and harms have changed for the better. By the early hominids being biped, meaning they are able to stand and even walk on two feet, it helped them to be able to do more things like getting around more and help with their tool making and hunting. A lot of the fossils discovered were found in the Great Rift Valley in East Africa, which contained many different lakes and small rivers....   [tags: Hominid Evolution, humans, Evolution, ]
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(3 pages) Strong Essays [preview] Human Language - The emergence of human language is associated with the Homo sapiens period. This is estimated to be about 200,000 years ago, when this species came into existence. However, the emergence of language was between 30,000 and 100,000 years ago. In explaining the question of where the language emerged, it will be appropriate to focus on the remains of the Homo sapiens who existed between these periods of time. As it will emerge from the discussion, more recent Homo sapiens remains have been unearthed in France, Australia and China....   [tags: communication, homo sapiens, evolution]
:: 9 Works Cited 1980 words
( pages) Term Papers [preview] The Evolution of Social Behavior - A defining feature of mankind is the ability to organize, and socialize with the immediate environment, which can either be the natural environment, social groups and organizations. While this feature largely relates to man’s propensity to make the best of most situations, such as living communally to offer greater protection to society members; it also relates to the innate nature of man’s curiosity. Yeats and Yeats (2007) observe that curiosity in man fuels the need to learn, and investigate, and can only be satisfied “....   [tags: Social Evolution]
:: 40 Works Cited 1452 words
( pages) Strong Essays [preview] Evolving Human Societies - Human societies are forever evolving. For instance, developing from preindustrial societies such as hunters and gatherers into modern industrial societies based on capitalism. A capitalist economy is defined as an economic system based on private ownership of capital. I believe that capitalism as a way of thinking that is fundamentally individualistic; that the individual is the center of capitalist endeavors and should be free to pursue their own interests. Thus individuals that are pursuing their own interests will guarantee the interests of society as a whole, which is the complete opposite to the hunter and gathering societies....   [tags: evolution, ] 1012 words
( pages) Strong Essays [preview] Islam, Science, and Evolution - Since the 1800’s, the influence of Darwin’s theory of evolution has been taken into thorough consideration and repetitively debated to whether human biological development evolved from chimpanzees through out time along with the idea of how all life on earth came to existence. In fact, this theory has struck such a high level of controversey that it primarily became a crucial idea of intellectuality discussed within the West and around the world. Science and relegion have been the greatest factors which have shaped and mended values and ideas of western societies, essentially making a lasting impression on human history....   [tags: theory of evolution] 1359 words
( pages) Strong Essays [preview] Human Evolutionary Traits and Behjaviours: Bipedalism - Throughout the conceptual yet acknowledged theories surrounding human evolutionary traits and behaviours, the exact forces that specifically promoted bipedalism are still difficult to determine. Controversy lies with the suggestion that bipedalism arose from as early as million years ago, in the late Miocene era, but it can be scientifically defined that the first definite bipedal hominin was the Australopithecus anamensis in the Pliocene. These findings suggest that at - million years ago, bipedalism was evolving; certain conditions acted as influences upon the hominins to develop bipedality....   [tags: Evolution Biology]
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( pages) Strong Essays [preview] The Evolution of Modern Humans - Human history has been traced back thousands and tens of thousands of years to the great apes. The evolution of modern humans as they are known today can be linked to and possibly attributed to the ancestors, great apes. It could be said that without great apes, humans today would not be the same. After all, humans and great apes share 99% of the same genome. Now these ancestors are in danger, they face extinction. Not only one species of great ape, but all of them are currently facing the threat of becoming obsolete....   [tags: human history, bonobo population]
:: 5 Works Cited 1645 words
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